As I read various sources online, I bookmark what I find useful. The links and resources in this post include collections of research, specific research on retrieval practice, an overview of learning theories, H5P’s new branching scenario option, and a widget for changing the colors in the Storyline modern player.
Learning Science and Research
A Look Back At The Years Best From Learning Science And Instructional Design – Mike Taylor Curated list of research and summaries of research related to learning. Cognitive load, spacing effect, forgetting effect, worked examples, and more. tags:research learning
Retrieval Practice Research
Factual Knowledge Must (Not?) Precede Higher Order Thinking |Education & Teacher Conferences Summary of Pooja Agarwal’s research on retrieval practice for higher order thinking tags:research learning bloom education
That is: when students didn’t review a particular set of facts, they could still reason with them — as long as they had practiced doing that kind of reasoning.Andrew Watson, summarizing Pooja Agarwal’s research
Retrieval Practice & Bloom’s Taxonomy: Do Students Need Fact Knowledge Before Higher Order Learning? The title is a little misleading. This isn’t about needing knowledge per se, but about what kinds of retrieval practice are more helpful for supporting higher order learning. Factual questions helped increase factual knowledge, but they didn’t help higher order reasoning. Higher order retrieval practice (on its own or mixed with factual questions) resulted in better performance on the higher order reasoning. If we view this as practicing in context, then it makes sense that practicing skills of similar difficulty would produce better results. However, this is contrary to some of the research that factual knowledge has to be mastered first. tags:research learning bloom
Although fact quizzes were beneficial for fact learning, they did not facilitate higher order learning, contrary to popular intuition based on Bloom’s taxonomy.
Contrary to popular intuition, building a foundation of factual knowledge via retrieval practice did not enhance students’ higher order learning. Instead, students’ final fact test and higher order test performance was greatest following retrieval practice that matched in cognitive complexity based on Bloom’s taxonomy: fact quizzes enhanced final fact test performance and higher order quizzes enhanced final higher order test performance. Retrieval practice increased learning by 20–30% under laboratory conditions with college students and also in an authentic K-12 classroom.
Why didn’t fact quizzes improve higher order learning in the present study, as many cognitive scientists and educators contend? First, students may have been unaware that information on fact quizzes was related to final higher order tests, thus they did not transfer their knowledge without explicit instructions to do so.
Mixed quizzes, comprising both fact and higher order questions, increased higher order test performance more than fact quizzes (in Experiment 2) and slightly more than higher order quizzes (in Experiment
If we want to reach the top of Bloom’s taxonomy, building a foundation of knowledge via fact-based retrieval practice may be less potent than engaging in higher order retrieval practice at the outset, a key finding for future research and classroom application.Pooja K. Agarwal
Different Types of Learning Theories – Understanding the Basics | My Love for Learning An overview of learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, social learning, connectivism, and adult learning. The connectivism description is questionable (or at least it’s not Stephen Downes’s version of connectivism, which I’m more familiar with). tags:learningtheories constructivism sociallearning connectivism adultlearning learning newid
Tools: H5P and Storyline